Protein restriction may be useful in reducing obesity, diabetes: Study – Times of India

WASHINGTON: According to a study, reducing protein intake can help control metabolic syndrome and some of its major symptoms such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension).
An article reporting the study has been published in the journal Nutrients.
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes, including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist and abnormal cholesterol levels.
“Studies show that reducing protein intake to 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight is sufficient to achieve nearly the same clinical results as calorie restriction, but without the need to reduce calorie intake. Nutrition Factors leading to the known benefits of restriction. Protein restriction may therefore be a more attractive dietary strategy and easier to follow for people with metabolic syndrome,” first author of the article and currently a post said doctoral researcher, Rafael Ferraz-Benitz. Joslin Diabetes Center at Harvard Medical School in the United States.
This study was funded by FAPESP through a PhD scholarship awarded to Ferraz Benitez while he was attending. University of Sao Pauloof Ribeirao Preto Medical School (FMRP-USP) in Brazil. The study also benefited from a FAPESP thematic project on strategies to mimic the effects of dietary restrictions, led by Marcelo Mori.a professor at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), also in Brazil.
A multidisciplinary team of scientists conducted the study, including researchers from the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, and the University of São Paulo and the National Cancer Institute (INCA) in Brazil, as well as the Obesity and Comorbidities Research Center (OCRC). were included. A Research, Innovation and Dissemination Center (RIDC) funded by FAPESP and UNICAMP.
Controlled diet
In the study, 21 volunteers with metabolic syndrome were analyzed for a period of 27 days during which their diet was monitored. Throughout this period, he was an inpatient at FMRP-USP’s teaching hospital (Hospital Das). Clinics in Ribeirao Preto).
Each volunteer’s daily caloric intake was calculated as a function of baseline metabolism (energy expenditure at rest). One group was fed what the authors called a standard Western diet (50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat) but with 25% fewer calories.
For the second group, the protein intake was reduced to 10%. Caloric intake was adjusted to each volunteer’s basal energy expenditure. Both groups consumed 4 g of salt per day.
The results showed that the calorie and protein restriction groups lost weight due to a reduction in body fat and improved symptoms of metabolic syndrome. A reduction in body fat is associated with a reduction in blood sugar and lipids and more normal levels of blood pressure.
“After 27 days of monitoring, both groups had similar results in terms of reduced blood sugar, weight loss, controlled blood pressure, and lower levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. Both diets improved insulin sensitivity after treatment. “Improved. Body fat decreased, as did waist and hip circumference, but without loss of muscle mass,” said MARIA CRISTINA FOS DE FRITASlast author of the article and a professor at FMRP-USP.
The results confirmed previous studies involving experiments on mice. “Here, however, we were able to conduct a fully controlled randomized clinical trial for 27 days, with a personalized menu tailored to each patient’s needs,” said Fos de Freitas. ”
Manipulation of dietary macronutrients – protein, carbohydrate and fat – is sufficient to achieve the beneficial effects of dietary restriction. “We demonstrated that protein restriction reduces body fat while increasing muscle mass. This is important because weight loss resulting from restrictive diets is often associated with less muscle mass,” said Ferraz Benitez. It happens by being.”
The study did not investigate the molecular mechanisms that might explain the beneficial effects of a protein-restricted diet, but the researchers believe that low protein intake leads to changes in metabolism or the body’s energy use. Increases metabolism which leads to fat burning to generate energy. cells “We still have only hypotheses. One is that molecular pathways are activated to interpret the reduction in essential amino acids as a signal to reduce food intake while increasing the production of hormones that Usually when we fast,” Mori said. . “Studies in animal models have demonstrated the involvement of such pathways in the effects of both protein and calorie restriction, both of which lead to fat loss.”
Despite the promising results of their study, the researchers pointed out that the diets involved were highly subjective. Mori also emphasized that they focused on a specific population of patients with metabolic syndrome (obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels).
“Nonetheless, it is tempting to extrapolate the results. We know that research has shown vegan diets to be positive for cases of metabolic syndrome. It has also been found that the protein requirements in a standard Western diet are generally higher. Too much can be a problem. We must not forget that protein deficiency can lead to serious health problems, as well described in pregnant women, for example,” he added. said

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